74 Edmund Road, Sheffield
In January 2006, Mike Griffiths and Associates were commissioned to undertake a historic building appraisal of a standing building, 'Clough Lodge', at 74 Edmund Road, Sheffield. The site currently comprises a number of disused modern light industrial units and the building subject to this appraisal. The appraisal is required to inform a planning application for the redevelopment of the site, which would require the demolition of 74 Edmund Road.
This area of Sheffield remained fairly rural until between 1855 and 1894, and Edmund Road itself did not exist at the time Clough Lodge was constructed. An analysis of historical maps has shown that, apart from two small structures demolished between 1905 and 1935, Clough Lodge was the only building to occupy the site until at least 1935.
The potential for the survival of sub-surface archaeological deposits is low, given the relatively recent development of the area and the lack of any other buildings on the site until after 1935.
Mike Griffiths & Associates were commissioned by Unite Group to undertake a historic building appraisal of a single existing building on Clough Road, Sheffield. This building, Clough Lodge, is set back from the northern street frontage, approximately twenty metres west of Edmund Road at National Grid Reference 435554 386319.
The building appraisal was required to aid planning decisions regarding the future redevelopment of the site that would involve the demolition of the existing building. South Yorkshire Archaeological Service provided a brief for the appraisal (Appendix 1).
This report presents the results of the building appraisal and the historic development of the site. The fieldwork and archive research were carried out by Guy Hopkinson.
The aims of the historic building appraisal were to assess the significance of the building and to record any features evident at the time of survey.
The survey aims were:
- to identify and record all surviving evidence for the original form of and subsequent modifications to the building;
- to recommend structures or features deemed worthy of further recording and analysis;
- to identify areas of known and potential archaeological interest within the site boundary;
- to provide information on the impact of the development on the known and potential archaeology.
2.2 Site Visits
Site fieldwork, comprising measured survey, digital record photography of the interior and exterior of the building, and black and white photography of the building exterior was undertaken on 31st January 2006. Sheffield City Archives and Sheffield Local Studies Library were consulted on 18th February 2006. The SMR was not consulted, as Dinah Saich of the South Yorkshire Archaeology Service had previously confirmed that no relevant information was held there.
2.3 Building Condition
At the time the fieldwork was undertaken the building was in a poor condition. All external doors and windows had been boarded up, and while one window was unboarded to allow access to the building, the majority of the survey was undertaken by torch-light.
The western ground floor room was half filled with bricks and rubble, while the central and eastern rooms had been fire blackened. Fire surrounds in these two rooms had been removed.
On the first floor, the floorboards of the western room were too decayed to allow safe access, though the central and eastern rooms were in relatively good condition.
The single roomed cellar was also in a state that made access difficult, a large quantity of silt and debris having been washed in through the light well in the southern wall. This was mounded up against the southern wall and extended across most of the floor, and other building debris was scattered on the stairs and floor.
Because of health and safety considerations (e.g. the possible presence of asbestos and the discovery of condoms and a hypodermic needle) no obstructions were moved at the time of survey.
2.4 Historical Research
Historical documents were studied from Sheffield City Archives and Sheffield Local Studies Library, including Ordnance Survey and earlier maps, Tatton's "Sheffield", the Pevsner guide to Sheffield, and Sheffield Directories. Very few references to Clough House or the associated Lodge were found, and the majority of the discussion in this report is therefore based on map evidence rather than documentary sources. The photograph used on the front cover of this report is erroneously described as Clough House in Sheffield Local Studies Library archive.
2.5 Measured Survey
The measured survey of the building was undertaken using a Leica Disto A5, supplemented where necessary by tape measurements. This measured survey was used to produce the building floor plans presented in Figures 9, 10 and 11.
2.6 Photographic Survey
Given the condition of the building at the time of the site visit and the fact that the windows were all boarded up, it proved impossible to complete the internal photographic survey. The exterior of the building was recorded using a 35mm SLR camera (Ricoh KR-10 with a 35-70mm lens). The photographs were taken using Ilford FP4 (ISO 125) film. In addition a series of record shots (internal and external) were taken using a digital SLR camera (Canon EOS 350D fitted with a Canon EFS 18-55mm lens). Due to a complete lack of light it proved impossible to take a record shot in the cellar.
2.7 Survey Archive
The archive, including a copy of the report, will be compiled, indexed and then offered for deposition with the Sheffield City Archives.
2.8 Land Use at the time of Survey
The building is adjacent to the rear (northern) boundary of a small industrial complex, otherwise comprising modern brick built and pre-fabricated industrial units, all of which were unoccupied at the time of survey.
Although geotechnical investigations have been carried out on the site, the report relating to these investigations is currently in preparation. At the time of writing this report no geotechnical data was available.
4.1 Location & General Site Layout
The site lies to the west of the junction of Clough Road and Edmund Road, the building subject to this appraisal being situated against the rear boundary of the site, some twenty metres west of Edmund Road and thirty metres north of Clough Road. Three other buildings are located within the site boundary, two pre-fabricated industrial units and a modern brick built industrial building. The building is centred on NGR 435554 386319.
Figure 1. Site location (NGR 435554 386319) (red boundary line is approximate).
Figure 2. Site layout; building subject to appraisal highlighted
in red, scale as shown.
Based on Met Surveys drawing, MM101_T, © Met Surveys.
4.2 Historical Summary & Map Analysis
The earliest map consulted illustrating this area of Sheffield, Fairbank's map of 1795, shows the area to be open fields. Clough Wheel, at the head of Clough Dam, and Clough Banks to the east of the site are depicted, but neither Clough House or the Lodge appear. Fairbanks 1797 map shows significant expansion of the city southwards, but the site area is not illustrated. Apart from a spur extending along the Chesterfield road, nothing is shown south of Duke Street (see Figure 3).
Figure 3. Detail from Fairbank's 1797 map.
Tayler's map, dated 1832, shows Clough House and Clough Lodge apparently within its grounds. Despite Clough House appearing on the 1832 map, the 1839 Sheffield directory (Robson, 1839) does not list any roads, streets or lanes beginning with 'Clough'.
The Ordnance Survey map dated 1853 also shows Clough House and the Lodge within its grounds, with Clough House Lane immediately to the north (see Figure 4).
Figure 4. Detail from 1853 Ordnance Survey map. Scale 1:1,560.
Clough House is mentioned in various Sheffield directories from 1841 onwards (White, 1841; Rodgers, 1841), when it was occupied by Mr. Hounsfield. Rodgers' 1841 directory also mentions 'Clough Cottage', though it is unclear whether this is the same building as Clough Lodge.
The 1855 Ordnance Survey map depicts Clough Lodge still lying within the grounds of Clough House, with open fields to the north of Clough House Lane. Clough House is shown some 150 metres to the west (see Figure 5).
Figure 5. Detail from 1855 Ordnance Survey 1st edition. Scale 1:10,560.
The 1876 Sheffield directory (White, 1876) does not list Edmund Road. Kelly's 1883 directory is the first to mention number 74 Edmund Road, at the time occupied by Leonard Barker, and a bracketed entry states "Water Works Co's Depot". The same directory lists Clough Road as follows; "...here is Charlotte Street...Winder, Edmond (Clough House)...here is Shoreham Street...Sheffield Waterworks Stores...Leonard Barker, Storekeeper...here is Edmund Road". The 1884 directory, however, only lists numbers 7 to 40 on Edmund Road (White, 1884).
The 1894 Ordnance Survey map shows significant development in the area; Shoreham Street now divides the land between Clough House and the proposed development site, with housing immediately to the west of the site fronting Shoreham Street, and the construction of a school to the north. The open fields depicted in the 1855 map are now almost entirely developed, the only major open areas being Bramall Lane Ground and Sheaf House Ground. Edmund Road is also now evident. A small earthwork is depicted within the site area, and Clough Lodge is also shown. This is illustrated with its western extension as an integral part of the building, and also with an extension beyond that, divided into two units. The total length of the building is approximately 12.50 metres east - west. Two small buildings (approximately 2.50 metres by 4.00 metres) are also depicted within the site, close to the Clough Road frontage.
The earthwork visible on the 1894 Ordnance Survey map presumably relates to a driveway running from the Lodge entrance up to Clough House, though this is now truncated by Shoreham Street (see Figure 6).
Figure 6. Detail from 1894 Ordnance Survey 1st edition. Scale 1:2,500.
The 1905 Ordnance Survey map is largely the same as that of 1894. The building is again depicted with its western extension and a further extension to the west, again divided into two units. This time, however, the buildings are hatched, and the southern unit of the furthest extension is not shaded suggesting it may have been a small yard. The two smaller buildings are labelled W.M., only that to the west is hatched (see Figure 7).
Figure 7. Detail from 1905 Ordnance Survey 1st revision. Scale 1:2,500.
The 1923 and 1935 Ordnance Survey maps show Clough Lodge further extended to the west, now measuring some 15.30 metres east - west. The two small buildings are evident on the 1923 map but have disappeared by 1935 (see Figure 8).
Figure 8. Detail from 1935 Ordnance Survey 3rd revision. Scale 1:2,500.
By the time of the 1953 Ordnance Survey map the further extension is no longer evident and the building has been reduced to a length of approximately 12.50 metres. The 1953 map also shows the electricity substation in the southwest corner of the site, and the two existing buildings at the west and centre of the site, labelled 'Workshops & Garages'. The existing building immediately to the west of Clough Lodge is also depicted, though at approximately twice its current length and joined to the building at the west of the site. Clough Lodge itself is labelled '74' (see Figure 9).
Figure 9. Detail from 1953 Ordnance Survey 1st edition. Scale 1:2,500.
The 1964 Ordnance Survey map shows the addition of the existing 'L' shaped building at the eastern end of the site, though little else has changed (see Figure 10).
Figure 10. Detail from 1964 Ordnance Survey 1st revision.
Omitted due to copyright restrictions.
4.3 Building Description
As it stands the building comprises three floors; a cellar, ground floor and first floor, with a single room forming the cellar, and three rooms each on the ground and first floors. Doorways are evident in the centre of the east facing façade (Plate 1), and slightly off centre in the west facing façade (Plate 3). A light well (sealed with a manhole cover) allowed light to the cellar, while three windows on each floor in the south facing façade allowed light to the ground and first floors (Plate 2). The north facing façade forms part of the site boundary and could therefore not be recorded, but this was entirely rendered.
The majority of the building exterior has been rendered, and little can therefore be deduced regarding the phasing and development of the building from the physical evidence. In some areas, however, this rendering has either flaked off or was never applied. The south facing façade shows flaking of the render around the west and east windows, crucially revealing one aspect of the building's development. A butted join can clearly be seen between the western and central windows, coincident with the interior wall dividing the western and central rooms (Plate 4). This would indicate that the building was initially constructed with two rooms on each floor, and the western end is a subsequent extension. The northern wall of this extension has been bonded to an existing stone wall. This wall extends along and beyond the north facing façade of the building, but it was unclear whether the wall of the original building butted or was bonded to it.
The west facing façade is only partially rendered, with the lower half either never having been rendered, or that render being removed at a later date. Wall scars are visible indicating that the lower half of the northern and southern walls originally extended further to the west (Plate 3).
126.96.36.199 Ground Floor
The main entrance to the building appears to have been in the centre of the eastern façade, giving access to a room measuring 3.12 metres by 3.04 metres. From this room stairs lead up to the first floor (Plate 5), down to the cellar, and through to the central room. The wall dividing this and the central room includes a chimney flue, though the fireplace in this room has been removed (Plate 6). Illumination is provided by a single central window in the southern wall, though the window has been removed, and is plastered throughout. The room contained no significant architectural features.
The central room measures 3.89 metres by 3.06 metres, and would originally have had a fireplace which has subsequently been removed (Plate 7). The room is illuminated by a single central window in the southern wall, though the window has been removed, and is plastered throughout. Access to the western room, a later extension, is through a doorway in the western wall (Plate 8). At the time of survey this doorway was blocked, and it is unclear if this was an original opening or was created at the time of the western extension. The room contained no significant architectural features.
The western room measures 3.64 metres by 2.43 metres. A single central window in the southern wall provides illumination, though the window has been removed, and a door in the western wall allows access to the outside. Modern wooden panelling is evident on the southern wall, but at the time of survey the room was half full of rubble and the lower half of the walls could not be examined (Plate 9, Plate 10). The room contained no significant architectural features.
188.8.131.52 First Floor
Access to the first floor is via stairs from the ground floor eastern room, rising to a landing twenty centimetres below the floor level of the first floor rooms. A doorway at the southern side of this landing leads into the eastern room, measuring 3.10 metres by 3.04 metres. A recessed storage area (Plate 11) is provided above floor level over the stairs, and the flue from the room below continues upwards but at half its width (Plate 12). A single central window in the southern wall provides illumination, though the window has been removed. The room contained no significant architectural features.
A doorway at the western end of the landing leads into the central room, currently measuring 3.90 metres by 3.10 metres. This room was modified, presumably at the time of the western extension, through the addition of an internal division to create a corridor leading to the western room. This internal division, however, has subsequently been removed but part remains at a high level above what would have been the door into this room (Plate 13). The flue from the ground floor central room continues upwards at full width. A single central window in the southern wall provides illumination, though the window has been removed (Plate 14). The room contained no significant architectural features.
At the time of survey the floor of the western room was in poor condition, with rotten floorboards and several holes into the lower room. The room was therefore measured and record shots taken from the doorway, but not entered. The room measured 3.74 metres by 2.69 metres, with a single central window in the southern wall providing light (Plate 15). The room contained no significant architectural features.
Access to the cellar is from a flight of stairs descending from the ground floor eastern room. Six steps lead down to the single room cellar, measuring 3.68 metres by 2.61 metres. The majority of the cellar is roofed by brick vaulting, springing from the walls at a height of 1.06 metres and with a maximum central height of 1.60 metres. The area directly opposite the stairs is roofed with flat stone slabs. A light well is situated in the southern wall (sealed by a manhole cover at the surface outside the building), but at the time of survey this was blocked by rubble and silt. A low stone worktop stands against the northern wall.
Figure 11. Cellar floor plan.
Figure 12. Ground floor plan.
Figure 13. First floor plan.
5.1 Significance of the Site
The building appears to be a late Victorian residential development within the grounds of Clough House, first depicted on Tayler's 1832 map. By 1849, however, the former grounds of Clough House have been bisected by Shoreham Street. Although referred to as Clough Lodge in this report, it is possible that there was no direct association with Clough House. The only documentary source that directly links 74 Edmund Road to Clough House is the Photograph in Sheffield Local Studies Library collection erroneously titled 'Clough House'. Tatton refers to the existence of a surviving lodge to Clough House, but without a description or cartographic evidence it cannot be stated with certainty that he is referring to this building. It is clear that from at least 1883 the building has been referred to as 74 Edmund Road (Kelly, 1883).
Very little documentary evidence relating to Clough House itself or the lodge exists, and while the building may have served as a gatehouse, there is no cartographic or archaeological evidence to support this.
The building is in an extremely poor state of repair. It has been fired damaged and internal fittings have been stripped out. Considering its lack of provenance and poor potential it is considered to be of minor significance.
5.2 Sub-surface Archaeology
The map analysis and historical research have indicated that there is unlikely to be any significant nineteenth century sub-surface archaeology. The only building evident within the proposed development site on Tayler's 1832 map and the 1853 Ordnance Survey map is Clough Lodge itself, and until 1935 only the building itself and the two small buildings at the south of the site are evident. Later maps show only the existing buildings on the site.
5.3 Importance of Key Structures
No structures or features of significance were observed during the survey.
The historic building appraisal has indicated that prior to 1797 no development occurred within the site, and that sometime between then and 1832 Clough Lodge was constructed and presumably extended (at least once and possibly twice) to the west. At some point between 1832 and 1894 two small buildings were constructed within the site to the south of Clough Lodge, though their function has not been established. Between 1905 and 1923 Clough Lodge was extended still further to the west, this extension having been removed by 1953. Between 1923 and 1935 the two smaller buildings appear to have been demolished. Between 1935 and 1953 the substation and two workshops were constructed, followed by a third workshop by 1964.
During the proposed development of the site it is unlikely that further historic features will be exposed, though it is almost inevitable that the footings of the western extensions to Clough Lodge will be encountered.
Given that a full photographic record could not be achieved at the time of survey due to the condition of the building, the completion of this aspect of the work (health and safety considerations permitting) would be considered by the author to be a satisfactory record of the standing building.
The author would like to thank the following for their assistance during the undertaking of this building appraisal: Dinah Saich of the South Yorkshire Archaeology Service, the staff of Sheffield City Archives, and the staff of Sheffield Local Studies Library.
8.1 Written Sources
- Kelly. 1865. Post Office Directory of Sheffield.
- Kelly. 1883. Sheffield and Rotherham Directory
- Robson. 1839. Birmingham and Sheffield Directory
- Rodgers, H.A. & Rodgers, T. 1841. Directory of Sheffield
- Tatton, H. (undated) Sheffield.
- White. 1841. General Directory of Sheffield
- White. 1856. General and Commercial Directory of Sheffield
- White. 1876. General and Commercial Directory of Sheffield
- White. 1879. General and Commercial Directory of Sheffield
- White. 1884. General and Commercial Directory of Sheffield
8.2 Historic Maps
- 1795. Fairbank. Map of Sheffield
- 1797. Fairbank. Map of Sheffield
- 1832. Tayler. Map of Sheffield
- 1850. London Printing & Publishing Company Map of Sheffield
- 1853 OS map: 6"- Mile.
- 1855 OS map: 12"- Mile. YORKS294SE
- 1906 OS map: 6"- Mile. YORKS294SE
- 1938 OS map: 6"- Mile. YORKS294SE
- 1953 OS map: 1:1250. SK3586SW-SE
- 1967 OS map: 1:1250. SK3586SE
- 1977. OS map: 1:1250. SK3586SE
- 1894 OS map: 1:2500. YORKS294SE
- 1923 OS map: 1:2500. YORKS294.12
- 1993 OS map: 1:10000. SK38NE