A total of sixty-eight objects relating to textile-working were recovered during excavation. This total includes loomweights, spindle whorls, needles, shears, scissors, a thread picker, a needle-making stone, a stone slick stone and a thimble. By far the majority of these items were recovered from Period 3 features or were otherwise dateable to the Saxon period. Fewer objects came from post-Saxon deposits, but they remain indicators of textile-working at the site, albeit on a smaller scale.
A single, charred fragment of antler spindle whorl (Find no 2812) was recovered from a securely dated Period 3 pit F381B (8th century). The material appears to be antler pedicle; and the use of this small cylindrical area of bone in the manufacture of a spindle whorl seems efficient. The top surface is simply decorated with incised concentric lines and the spindle hole is partially preserved. Three pedicle whorls are known from the later phases (5B and 6) of Coppergate; coincidentally one of these is also charred (Walton Rogers 1999: 1966-67).
A total of four decorated fired clay spindle whorls were recovered during excavation and all derive from secure Period 3 deposits. Find no 2830 came from a late backfill of Pit F13B and is fragmentary, but decoration consists of a barely-visible interrupted chevron or herringbone design on the lower face of the whorl. Find no 2828 was recovered from a Period 3 hearth fill F246B, is near-complete and decorated with incised concentric bands around its circumference on both faces. Find no 916 was recovered from Period 3 cesspit F64F which was backfilled by the mid-9th century. The whorl is fragmentary, but the original form is preserved and simple decoration consists of four well-spaced incised lines on the lower face. Find no 915 was recovered from the same feature but is very abraded and fragmentary, only preserving the spindle hole diameter.
A single spindlewhorl, Find no 904, has been fashioned from a river pebble and was recovered from a Period 4 rubbish pit, F125F. The pit contained Torkseyware pottery, but also contained residual Anglian pottery suggesting the whorl too may be residual from Period 3.
A single lead alloy spindle whorl was recovered residually in a Period 7 pit F187B (Find no 2120). The whorl is conical in form and made of rough cast lead alloy with a rough irregular surface. The whorl has a spindle hole diameter of 5mm which falls into the range of Roman spindles (Walton Rogers 1997, 1743).
Three of the spindle whorls can be classified as Walton Rogers’ type A1 (Find no 2812, 2828 and 916), while Find no 2830 is slightly irregular in form but closest to A1 (Walton Rogers 1993, 1266-1269; Walton Rogers 1997, 1736-1737); Find no 915 is insufficiently complete to allow further classification.
Pin-beater or thread-picker
A highly-polished pin-beater (Find no 2734) was recovered from Period 3 pit, F381B. Pin-beaters are common at Anglian and Anglo-Scandinavian sites in England and are know in York and the pin-beater fits well within the late 7th to 10th century canon, being used with the warp-weighted loom for which there was considerable evidence at the site in the quantity of loomweights recovered. The date of the piece is secured in the 8th century by two coins from Pit F381B, a continental sceat dated to c.695 to c.740 was recovered from basal fill C2062B and a sceat of Eadberht dated to 737 to 758AD from the final backfill.
This single example compares well with the example from 46-54 Fishergate which partially preserves incised decoration (Walton Rogers 1993, 1270). Another pin-beater was recovered from the same site, and despite high-polish was thought not to be a pin-beater due to the presence of incised decoration (Rogers 1993, 1262, Fig.622). A complete thread-picker has been recovered from London (Blackmore 2003, 305-6) and bears incised decoration suggesting the Fishergate piece may indeed be a fragment of pin-beater.
A minimum of fifty fired clay loomweights were identified, although the fragmentary nature of many of the loomweights, particularly those from Period 3 bonfire kiln, F225B, makes more definite quantification impossible; this total is likely to be conservative. Where the necessary dimensions were preserved, the loomweights were classified as annular, bun-shaped or intermediate; eighteen weights were intermediate, eight annular and one bun-shaped (see Table 1). Where the profile was preserved the weights were also recorded as either D-shaped or tall D-shaped; fourteen D-shaped and three tall D-shaped weights were identified.
|F. No||C. No.||Find No.||Weight (g)||Diameter Int. (mm)||Diameter Ext. (mm)||Height (mm)||Type|
|–||1000B||2834||68||30||31||39||Intermediate, tall D – shaped|
|225B||1491||6295||98||30||34||33||Intermediate, D – shaped|
|225B||1493||2826||58||30||31||33||Intermediate, conjoins with find no. 2823|
|225B||1493||2823||108||30||31||33||Intermediate, conjoins with find no. 2826|
|225B||1493||2824||78||40||28||32||Annular, tall D – shaped|
|225B||1493||2809||108||40||40||28||Intermediate, D – shaped|
|225B||1493||6296||78||30||37||30||Intermediate, D – shaped|
|225B||1494||2818||348||27||38||27||Intermediate, D – shaped|
|225B||1494||2817||260||30||35||33||Intermediate, D – shaped|
|225B||1494||2815||212||29||33||27||Intermediate, D – shaped|
|225B||1494||6294||90||28||30||30||Intermediate, D – shaped|
|225B||1494||6293||116||40||32||32||Annular, D – shaped|
|225B||1494||6292||134||40||39||–||Intermediate, D – shaped|
|225B||1494||6291||172||31||35||29||Intermediate, D – shaped|
|225B||1494||2835||64||30||38||29||Intermediate, D – shaped|
|225B||1494||2829||146||40||33||28||Annular, D – shaped|
|225B||1494||6297||156||40||35||32||Annular, D – shaped|
|241B||1518||2807||76||40||–||32||Intermediate, D – shaped|
|353B||1449||2822||178||11||36||30||Bun – shaped|
|442B||2004||2820||84||30||36||38||Intermediate, tall D – shaped|
The weights were not from contexts that were dated more specifically than 7th to 9th century and no typological analyses were possible, although with such low numbers it is debateable that patterns would emerge. The presence of the bonfire-kiln, F225B, made specifically to fire a batch of loomweights, provides interesting information.
The in situ loomweight wasters were presumably rejects from a larger batch and many are extremely fragmentary. Only two complete examples were recovered from F225B and the reason for their rejection is unclear. Some weights had exploded, for example, Find no 6073 which is represented by 117 conjoining fragments. Others, for example, Find no 2086, were completely unfired and may represent poor control of the firing process, rather than deliberately unfired loomweights, such as have been found on other Middle Saxon sites (Hamerow 1993, 68).
In addition, there are a number of interesting features among the bonfire kiln assemblage. Many weights displayed a groove presumably a niche for grouped yarn to nestle in. Other published loomweights note that the groove derives from wear (Walton Rogers 1997 1753), but it would seem at Blue Bridge Lane that it was an integral feature of the manufactured weight. Four loomweights showed evidence for decoration in the form of pricked decoration, although this may well indicate an attempt at preventing the weight exploding during firing. Nevertheless the presence of undecorated and decorated weights in one production batch is noteworthy. In addition, loomweights classified as annular and intermediate were being manufactured side-by-side in the kiln which demonstrates the different forms do not always reflect changes through time.
Shears and scissors
Fragments of one pair of shears (Find no 3183) and two pairs of scissors were recovered during excavation (Find nos 3197 and 3338). It is possible that the shears represent light leather craft, but they are discussed and catalogued here. The shears were recovered from a Period 7 pit F77B and are represented only by the bow, which is of looped-form and therefore medieval date. One pair of scissors, Find no 3338, was recovered from a Period 7 ditch backfill and one blade, arm and part of a loop is preserved. The second pair of scissors, Find no 3197, was recovered from a Period 9 layer and the blade, blade junction and pivot are represented. Both pairs of scissors are similar to a pair recovered from the Bedern, which are dated to the early 14th century (Ottaway and Rogers 2003, Table 281) and to a pair from London, which, though unstratified, were dated to the late 13th to 14th century (Egan and Pritchard 2000, 60; 114). It is likely that both pairs of scissors from Blue Bridge Lane are of 14th century date or later and are recycled from deposits associated with the priory.
Six iron needles were represented in the assemblage, four of which derived from Period 3 features, the other two from Period 7 pits. A single example of a large copper-alloy needle was recovered from the leveling of a Period 6 terrace, F352. The Period 3 needles included an example with part of a Y-eye preserved (Find no 311); the remaining three did not preserve evidence for an eye but were identified as needles shanks due to their thin tapering form (Find nos 310, 3304 and 3305).
A possible needle-making stone was recovered from Period 3 pit F408B and consists of an irregular piece of flat yellow sandstone with sharpening grooves on both faces; one side is also smoothed from sharpening (Find no 4409). This piece may be a whetstone but the irregularity of the sharpening grooves would make sharpening a straight blade difficult. It is possible that the piece was used for finishing or repointing iron needles. Similar function is suggested for some of the hones from 46-54 Fishergate (Rogers 1993, 1316).
Stone slick stone
One smooth stone object recovered from a Period 7 pit F162B may be a polishing stone with a similar function to linen slick stones (Find no 4432). Similar stones have been identified as such at other sites in York, notably a stone slick stone from Coppergate (Walton Rogers 1997, 1779). The object is likely to be residual from Period 3 deposits. A second stone object was similar in appearance, Find no 6123, but had an irregular base and may have had a more general burnishing or polishing function.
A single domed copper-alloy thimble was recovered from a Period 8 feature, F198B and is well dated by coins to the 15th century. Other York examples of domed thimbles come from the Bedern and 46-54 Fishergate and are dated to the 15th century or later (Ottaway and Rogers 2002, 2739-2740).
The strongest indicators for textile-working belong to Period 3. A minimum of fifty fired clay loomweights were represented, identified mainly as intermediate form, alongside some annular and bun-shaped weights, five spindle whorls, four iron needles and a needle making stone and a highly ebonised bone thread picker represent textile-working in the area. The assemblage is typical of Saxon sites and bears easy comparison with other assemblages from sites such as West Stow (West 1985, I, 138), London (Blackmore 2003, 168-170; 216-222) and Mucking (Hamerow 1993, 66-68) and reflects the traditional Middle Saxon craft.
Most notably, the number of loomweights is comparatively high when compared with the adjacent 46-54 Fishergate excavations, where only three loomweights were recovered from Anglian deposits with three further weights potentially derived from Anglian deposits but recovered from later features. The total of loomweights from Blue Bridge Lane is clearly skewed by the presence of a bonfire kiln with in situ loomweight wasters. Without the weights from the kiln or those thought to be redeposited from it the total is fifteen, which is still more than the number recovered from 46-54 Fishergate and from a smaller area with fewer features. The comparative number of spindle whorls is lower however (five versus fifteen), and the absence of iron wool comb teeth from Blue Bridge Lane can be compared with the four from Period 3 deposits at 46-54 Fishergate.
The picture of textile-working that emerges from Blue Bridge Lane suggests that more weaving and garment finishing was undertaken in the area, since the loomweights, thread picker, slick stone, and needles and needle-making stone derive from these stages of manufacture. The greater number of spindle whorls and iron comb teeth, alongside fewer loomweights suggests that more wool processing and spinning was undertaken in the area of 46-54 Fishergate. The different numbers, and in some cases the presence and absence, of particular objects do appear to relate to different stages of textile production which can be grouped quite naturally in a coherent order; raw wool processing from fleece and conversion into yarn followed by weaving and garment finishing. This seems to be what the assemblage reflects rather than higher or lower numbers of objects relating to different stages of production being encountered randomly at both sites. These differences may define the long sought after areas of craft ‘specialisation’ in trading centres in the form of dedicated areas for particular processes or crafts. Low numbers of spindle whorls alongside large numbers of loomweights was encountered at the Royal Opera House, London and it was suggested that the wool was supplied as yarn rather than raw fleece (Blackmore 2003, 168-167); the same may be true of Blue Bridge Lane. However, the overall quantities of textile-processing artefacts need to be placed in a wider context.
When compared with the numbers of textile-working objects from other sites the numbers pale. A conservative estimate of the number of loomweights recovered from London is 226 (ibid, 168), while over 700 were recovered from Flixborough (Walton Rogers 1997, 1753). The fifty-four recovered from Fishergate in total suggest that textiles are unlikely to have been a major export of the trading settlement. The total loomweights recovered are barely enough to furnish one upright loom and with such numbers it is hard to see the production of textiles as anything more substantial than subsistence activity, certainly not undertaken at an intensity approaching craft industry.
Period 7/8 textile working
Later textile processing appears to consist of cutting and finishing supplied material, since two pairs of scissors, a thimble and a large copper alloy needle are the only objects from this period. The textile-processing artifacts found near the claustral range reflect those from the precinct and suggest only ordinary needlework was undertaken at this time (Ottaway and Rogers 2002, 2744).
Find no 2812, Period 3 cess pit F381B, C2052B, fragment of lathe-turned antler spindle whorl. Decoration consists of fine incised concentric lines on lower face of whorl; D. 70.5mm, T. 15mm, hole diam. 7.5mm; burnt and partially calcined.
Find No 2828, Period 3 hearth fill F246B, C1543B, near-complete decorated clay spindle whorl. Decoration consists of incised concentric bands around circumference on upper and lower faces of whorl; D. 44.5mm, T. 16.5mm, hole diam.9.0mm; damaged.
Find No 2830, Period 3 cess pit F13B, C1065B, fragment of decorated clay spindle whorl. Decoration consists of faint interrupted chevron or herringbone design on upper side of whorl; D. 35mm diameter, T.15.5mm, hole diam. 7.5mm; damaged and abraded.
Find no 915, Period 3 cess pit F64F, C1120F, fragment of clay spindle whorl. Hole diam. 8mm; no other measurable dimensions; abraded
Find no 916, Period 3 cess pit F64F, C1339F, fragment of decorated clay spindle whorl. Decoration consists of four spaced incised concentric lines on lower face; D. 30mm, T. 20mm, hole diam. 7mm; poorly-fired and friable.
Find no 904, Period 4 pit F125F, C1239F, complete river pebble spindle whorl with centrally drilled spindle hole; D. c. 28mm diameter, T. 24mm, hole diam. 8mm.
Find no 2120, Period 7 pit F187B, C1180B, complete lead alloy whorl, conical form with centrally cast spindle hole; D, 23.5mm, T. 10.5mm, hole diam. 5mm.
Loomweights (Catalogue by Lisa Smith)
D.: diameter of whole object as viewed from above (mm); T.: thickness of ring as viewed from above (mm); H.: depth of ring, as viewed from side (mm); Wt.: weight (g)
Find No 917 Period 3 cess pit F64F, C1120F, fragment of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt: 44g
Find No 1316 Period 4 pit F125F, C1239F, fragment of annular loomweight, T. 23, Wt. 18g
Find No 1432 residual in Period 7 grave F61F, C1114F, fragment of annular loomweight, D. 90mm T. 26mm Wt. 40g
Find No 2805 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1491B, 40 small fragments of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 146g
Find No 2806 Period 3 cesspit F241B, C1516B, 3 fragments, non-conjoining, heavily mis-shapen, these fragments have not been fired and may belong to the same loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 108g
Find No 2807 Period 3 cesspit F241B, C1518B, fragment of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped, slightly burnt on one side, H. 32mm Wt. 76g
Find No 2808 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1493B, near-complete fragment of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped with slightly raised lip on one side, groove for cord attachment, D.100mm T. 32mm H. 28mm Wt. 190g
Find No 2809 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1493B, fragment of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped, D. 100mm T. 40mm H. 28mm Wt. 108g
Find No 2810 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1493B, 4 fragments of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 104g
Find No 2811 Period 3 cess pit F442B, C2011, period 3, 2 conjoining fragments of annular loomweight, D-shaped, burning visible on one side, D. 110mm T. 30mm H. 25mm Wt. 260g
Find No 2813 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, 5 fragments of different loomweights, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 136g
Find No 2814 Period 3 cess pit F442B, C2004B, period 3, fragment of intermediate loomweight, mis-shapen, D. 100mm T. 36mm H. 27mm Wt. 126g
Find No 2815 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, near-complete but fragmentary intermediate loomweight, D-shaped, slight evidence of burning on one edge, D. 100mm T. 33mm H. 27mm Wt. 212g
Find No 2816 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1493B, 53 fragments of loomweight, 2 conjoin with pricked decoration and groove for cord attachment, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 214g
Find No 2817 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, near-complete intermediate loomweight, sheared in half, groove for cord attachment, D. 100mm T.35mm H. 33mm Wt. 260g
Find No 2818 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, complete intermediate loomweight, D-shaped with slightly raised lip on one side, on the reverse there is evidence of an indentation, the reverse is heavily burnt, D.110mm T. 38mm H. 27mm Wt. 348g
Find No 2819 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, 4 fragments of loomweights, two non-conjoining fragments with a raised lip on one side, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 136g
Find No 2820 Period 3 cess pit F442B, C2004B, period 3, mis-shapen fragment of intermediate loomweight, tall D-shaped, T. 36 mm H. 38mm Wt. 84g
Find No 2822 Period 3 rubbish pit F353B, C1449B, period 3, near complete bun-shaped loomweight, D-shaped, D. 80mm T. 36mm H. 30mm Wt. 178g
Find No 2823 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1493B, 3 conjoining fragments of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped, conjoins with Find No. 2826, D. 90mm T. 31mm H. 33mm Wt. 108g
Find No 2824 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1493B, fragment of annular loomweight, tall D-shaped, groove for cord attachment, D. 90mm T. 28mm H. 32mm Wt. 78g
Find No 2825 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1493B, fragment of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped with raised lip on either side D. 100mm T. 39mm H. 40mm Wt. 74g
Find No 2826 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1493B, fragment of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped, conjoins with Find No. 2823, D. 90mm T. 31mm H. 33mm Wt. 58g
Find No 2827 Period 3 cess pit F351B, C1763B, fragment of annular loomweight, D-shaped, D. 100mm T.28mm H. 27mm Wt. 42g
Find No 2829 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, 8 fragments of annular loomweight, D-shaped, pricked decoration on one side, D. 100mm T.33mm H. 28mm Wt. 146g
Find No 2831 Period 3 cess pit F13B, C1148B, period 3, fragment of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 4g
Find No 2834 Unstratified C1000B, fragment of intermediate loomweight, tall D-shaped, irregular in shape, black colour; possibly mis-fired, T. 31mm W. 39mm Wt. 68g
Find No 2835 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, fragment of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped, pricked decoration on one side, D.110mm T. 38mm H.29mm Wt. 64g
Find No 4397 Period 3 cess pit F381B, C1851B, fragment of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 34g
Find No 4398 Period 3 cess pit F241B, C1526B, fragment of loomweight, no measurable dimensions Wt. <1g
Find No 4399 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, period 3, 4 fragments of loomweight, groove for cord attachment on one fragment, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 40g
Find No 4400 residual in Period 7 posthole F226B, C1492B, period 7, 2x fragments of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 58g
Find No 4401 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1491B, fragment of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 18g
Find No 6073 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, 117 fragments of one loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 130g
Find No 6127 C1252B, fragment of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 14g
Find No 6128 Period 3 cess pit F13B, C1062B, fragment of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 40g
Find No 6129 Period 3 cess pit F241B, C1517B, period 3, 3x fragments of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 10g
Find No 6160 Period 3 cess pit F381B, C2063B, fragment of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 18g
Find No 6163 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, 4 fragments of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 20g
Find No 6164 C1433B, small fragment of loom weight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 8g
Find No 6167 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, 3 fragments of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 20g
Find No 6172 F227B, C1495B, period 7, fragment of intermediate loomweight, stud decoration one side T. 35 mm Wt. 52g
Find No 6260 Period 3 cess pit F241B, C1526B, period 3, small fragment of loomweight, no measurable fragments, Wt. 6g
Find No 6261 Period 3 cess pit F241B, C1529B, 3 small fragments of loomweight, no measurable dimensions, Wt. 30g
Find No 6291 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C6291B, 2 conjoining fragments of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped, D. 100mm T. 35mm H. 29mm Wt. 172g
Find No 6292 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, fragment of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped, underside missing, pricked decoration on one side and groove for cord attachment, D. 110mm T. 39mm Wt. 134g
Find No 6293 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, fragment of annular loomweight, D-shaped, slightly burnt on one side, D. 110mm T.32mm H. 32mm Wt. 116g
Find No 6294 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, fragment of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped, slightly burnt on one side, D. 80mm T. 28mm H.30mm Wt. 90g
Find No 6295 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1491B, fragment of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped with raised lip on one side, D. 100mm T. 34mm H. 33mm Wt. 98g
Find No 6296 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1493B, fragment of intermediate loomweight, D-shaped, D. 110mm T. 37mm H. 30mm Wt. 78g
Find No 6297 Period 3 bonfire kiln F225B, C1494B, fragment of annular loomweight, D-shaped, D. 110mm T. 35mm H. 32mm Wt. 156g
Find no 2734 Period 3 cess pit F381B, C1836B, double ended bone thread picker, highly polished from use, L.113.60, D.(both ends) 9.20mm
Find no 3183, Period 8 pit F77B, C1741B, bow from pair of shears 29mm, 17mm
Find no 3338, Period 9 layer C2015B, one blade of pair of scissors, retains small fragment of bow intact blade L77mm (tip missing)
Find no 3197, Period 8 ditch F208B, C1769B pair of scissor blades corroded together, with blade junction and pivot intact, blade 1, 79mm, 9mm, blade 2, 75mm, 10mm
Find no 310, Period 3 cess pit F13B, C1063B, incomplete headless shank L.28mm, D.2.5mm
Find no 311, Period 3 cess pit F13B, C1027B, incomplete Y-eye with partial shank L.29mm, D.1.5mm
Find no 3304, Period 3 pit F402B, C1883B, headless shank, L.54mm, D.1.5mm
Find no 3305, Period 3 pit F402B, C1883B, headless shank L.36mm, D.2mm
Find no 3517, Period 7 pit F245B, C1549B, headless bent shank, shank L.54mm, D.2.5mm
Find no 3704, Period 8 pit F198B, C1388B, headless shank, bent, L.49mm, D.1mm
Find no 2184, levelling of Period 7 terrace F352B, C1688B, large Y-eyed needle L.104mm, D.2.5mm
Find no 4409, Period 3 pit F408B, C1892B, complete irregular shape, rectangular profile. One side worn and both faces show sharpening groove. Sandstone, yellowish-brown, fine-grained micaceous.
Stone slick stones
Find no 4432, Period 7 pit F162B, C1315B, damaged or rough hewn upper face and very smooth flat polishing surface, D.c. 95mm, T. 31mm
Find no 6123, Period 8 pit F198B, C1442B, incomplete sub-circular ?stone polisher, smoothed on both sides, lower side irregular, D.78mm, T30mm
Find no 2080, Period 8 pit F198, C1214, complete domed with incised ring around rim, very worn at rim and top with indentations over whole in barely order concentric lines, thimble D.18.5mm, H.15.5mm